Tapio - Carbon Strategy Platform

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The calculation method used by tapio is identical to that developed by reliable international standards such as the ghg protocol, ISO 14064-1 or the Bilan Carbone Association.

What is a greenhouse gas?

A greenhouse gas (GHG) is any of various gaseous compounds (such as carbon dioxide or methane) that absorb infrared radiation, trap heat in the atmosphere, and contribute to the greenhouse effect.

Natural green house gases

The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon present since time immemorial with GHGs such as water vapor, methane or CO2 that allowed the average global temperature to be maintained around 15°C. Without these so-called natural GHGs, the temperature would drop to -18°C, making them essential to life.

Anthropogenic Green House Gases

However, human activities since the industrial revolution have led to the appearance of new sources of GHGs, known as industrial or anthropogenic GHGs. Emissions of these anthropogenic gases accentuate the greenhouse effect, we speak of additional greenhouse effect, causing the sadly known global warming.

Green House Gases common unit

The Tapio tool allows you to estimate the quantity of industrial greenhouse gases emitted by the activities of your organization. To do so, all greenhouse gases taken into account are reduced to a common unit kg (or T) of CO 2 equivalent indicating their global warming power.

Main Anthropogenic GHGs

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Stays 100 years in the atmosphere.
Comes mainly from fossil energy consumption, deforestation/land use changes, industrial processes.

Methane (CH4)

Stays 12 years in the atmosphere.
Comes mainly from transport and consumption of gas, enteric fermentation or organic waste, waste treatment.
1 ton of CH4 = 28 tons of CO2 equivalent

Nitrous Oxide (N2O)

Stays 114 years in the atmosphere.
Comes mainly from the use of chemical fertilizers.
1 ton of N2O = 265 tons of CO2 equivalent

Fluorinated Gases (FGs)

Stay centuries in the atmosphere.
Comes mainly from leaks from cooling and refrigeration systems, production of insulation foam.
1 ton of CFCs >1000 tons of CO2 equivalent


What is the scope of a carbon report ?

The first step of the methodology is to define the scope of analysis, which means targeting and characterizing the sources of GHG emissions within organizations.

Organisational boundaries

Initially the organisation has to define the organizational boundaries, which are the sites, facilities and skills taken into account in the carbon report. Defining the organisational perimeter can be complicated for complex organisations with, for example, shares in or control of another organisation. More detailed information on defining the organisational boundaries of complex organisations can be found here.

Operational bounderies

Then, the company has to define the sources of emissions that will be taken into account in the calculation method.

These sources are divided into 3 scopes of emissions:

Scope 1

Direct GHG emissions


Direct emissions from sources owned or controlled by the organization, such as: combustion of stationary and mobile sources, non-combustion industrial processes, ruminant emissions, refrigerant leaks, biomass, etc.

Scope 2

Indirect energy emissions


Indirect emissions associated with the production of electricity, heat or steam imported for the organization's operations.

Scope 3

Other indirect emissions


Other indirect emissions produced by the organization's activities that are not accounted for in Scope 2 but which are related to the complete value chain such as: business travel, commuting, inputs, waste, inbound and outbound logistics, …

Emissions categories

The 3 types or scopes of emissions are themself divided into 24 emissions categories, allowing you to precisely target the GHG flows within your organization. Those categories are represented in the following figure.


Emissions drivers

To simplify the visualization and understanding of a carbon report, Tapio has classified the 24 emission categories of the GHG protocol into 7 drivers. This division into different drivers also aims to anticipate future reduction levers.

More details can be found here.

How are CO2 emissions calculated

The principle of GES emission quantification for an organisation is simple, for each emissions source, the following calculation is performed.

Activity data
Emission factor
GHG Emissions
(kg or tCO2e)
Activity data is a measure of GHG-emitting activity. For example, the number of km travelled by car, the amount of kW*h of electricity consumed, ... These are the raw data provided by the organization.
The emissions factor is specific to each activity data and therefore allows to convert the activity data into the quantity of CO2 equivalent emitted (for example: Burning 1 litre of petrol=2.3 kg CO eq). These emission factors are available in various carbon databases such as, among others, the ADEME database or the IPCC.

Then, the emissions sources are added together to give the distribution of emissions by SCOPE and the total emissions.


The calculation of emissions is accompanied by an uncertainty in the result inherent in the collection of data and the development of emission factors, each of which is a component of the above calculation.

The uncertainties related to the activity data are allocated by the user of the tool or by the tool according to the quality of the data. Our partner CO2 Logic has standardized the uncertainty on the data (U Data) according to the precision quality of the collected data:
Type of dataUncertainty
Direct internal data (invoices or meters)5%
Internal data processed (e.g. conversion)10%
Internal data obtained on the basis of hypothesis20%
Internal data not available, data obtained on the basis of a benchmark.50%
Uncertainties related to emissions factors(UFE) are directly defined by the Bilan Carbone® methodology or the GHG protocol methodology.

The total uncertainty of an emission source is defined by:

U post = 1 - [(1 - UFE)*(1 - Udata)]

UFE: the uncertainty on the emission factor
UData: the uncertainty on the respective data at each position
UPost: the overall uncertainty of the position

How is our "Solution Drivers" built?

Based on the concepts defined by the ghg protocol, tapio has developed a solution generator that aims to simplify the understanding of the carbon report and the implementation of emission reduction solutions.

Reduction driverEmission category
Energy consumption1: Stationary combustion
5: Biomass
6: Electricity consumption
7: Network energy (excl. electricity)
8: Fuel & Energy related activities
Mobility2: Mobile combustion
13: Business travel
23: Employee commuting
Procurement9: Purchased goods & services
10: Capital Goods
15: Upstream leasing
Waste11: Waste
20: End-of-life treatment of sold products
Use of sold or lent products17: Processing of sold products
19: Use of sold products
22: End-of-life treatment of sold products
Logistics12: Upstream transports
18: Downstream transports
Other3: Direct process-related
4: Fugitive
14: Upstream franchise
16: Investments
21: Downstream Franchise
24: Other
StrategyBehavioral change in organizations