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The calculation method used by tapio is identical to that developed by reliable international standards such as the ghg protocol, ISO 14064-1 or the Bilan Carbone Association.
What is a greenhouse gas?
A greenhouse gas (GHG) is any of various gaseous compounds (such as carbon dioxide or methane) that absorb infrared radiation, trap heat in the atmosphere, and contribute to the greenhouse effect.
Stays 100 years in the atmosphere.
Comes mainly from fossil energy consumption, deforestation/land use changes, industrial processes.
Stays 12 years in the atmosphere.
Comes mainly from transport and consumption of gas, enteric fermentation or organic waste, waste treatment.
1 ton of CH4 = 28 tons of CO2 equivalent
Stays 114 years in the atmosphere.
Comes mainly from the use of chemical fertilizers.
1 ton of N2O = 265 tons of CO2 equivalent
Stay centuries in the atmosphere.
Comes mainly from leaks from cooling and refrigeration systems, production of insulation foam.
1 ton of CFCs >1000 tons of CO2 equivalent
What is the scope of a carbon report ?
The first step of the methodology is to define the scope of analysis, which means targeting and characterizing the sources of GHG emissions within organizations.
Initially the organisation has to define the organizational boundaries, which are the sites, facilities and skills taken into account in the carbon report. Defining the organisational perimeter can be complicated for complex organisations with, for example, shares in or control of another organisation. More detailed information on defining the organisational boundaries of complex organisations can be found here.
Then, the company has to define the sources of emissions that will be taken into account in the calculation method.
These sources are divided into 3 scopes of emissions:
Direct emissions from sources owned or controlled by the organization, such as: combustion of stationary and mobile sources, non-combustion industrial processes, ruminant emissions, refrigerant leaks, biomass, etc.
Indirect emissions associated with the production of electricity, heat or steam imported for the organization's operations.
Other indirect emissions produced by the organization's activities that are not accounted for in Scope 2 but which are related to the complete value chain such as: business travel, commuting, inputs, waste, inbound and outbound logistics, …
The 3 types or scopes of emissions are themself divided into 24 emissions categories, allowing you to precisely target the GHG flows within your organization. Those categories are represented in the following figure.
To simplify the visualization and understanding of a carbon report, Tapio has classified the 24 emission categories of the GHG protocol into 7 drivers. This division into different drivers also aims to anticipate future reduction levers.
How are CO2 emissions calculated
The principle of GES emission quantification for an organisation is simple, for each emissions source, the following calculation is performed.
Then, the emissions sources are added together to give the distribution of emissions by SCOPE and the total emissions.
The calculation of emissions is accompanied by an uncertainty in the result inherent in the collection of data and the development of emission factors, each of which is a component of the above calculation.
|Type of data||Uncertainty|
|Direct internal data (invoices or meters)||5%|
|Internal data processed (e.g. conversion)||10%|
|Internal data obtained on the basis of hypothesis||20%|
|Internal data not available, data obtained on the basis of a benchmark.||50%|
The total uncertainty of an emission source is defined by:
How is our "Solution Drivers" built?
Based on the concepts defined by the ghg protocol, tapio has developed a solution generator that aims to simplify the understanding of the carbon report and the implementation of emission reduction solutions.
|Reduction driver||Emission category|
|Energy consumption||1: Stationary combustion |
6: Electricity consumption
7: Network energy (excl. electricity)
8: Fuel & Energy related activities
|Mobility||2: Mobile combustion |
13: Business travel
23: Employee commuting
|Procurement||9: Purchased goods & services |
10: Capital Goods
15: Upstream leasing
|Waste||11: Waste |
20: End-of-life treatment of sold products
|Use of sold or lent products||17: Processing of sold products |
19: Use of sold products
22: End-of-life treatment of sold products
|Logistics||12: Upstream transports |
18: Downstream transports
|Other||3: Direct process-related |
14: Upstream franchise
21: Downstream Franchise
|Strategy||Behavioral change in organizations|